Monday, July 15, 2019

Roman Mysteries Themes and Topics

In each of the 17 books in my Roman Mysteries series, I have consciously embedded a Greek Myth. This short guide tells which ones and also highlights the themes, topics and artefacts featured in each book. I hope teachers will find it useful. 

Book 1: The Thieves of Ostia 
SETTING - Ostia, the port of Rome (ITALY) 
June 79 AD
Roman topic: introduction to a Roman town and social structure
Real historical characters: Cartilius Poplicola (resident of Ostia)
Sources: The Aeneid, the Bible, Ostian inscriptions
Greek myths: Aeneas, Cerberus, Perseus and Medusa
featured food: fruit, snails, stuffed dormice (ironically)
artefacts: signet ring, wax tablet, stylus, oil lamp, amphoras, dice
ROMANS #KS2 
Related posts: How to Make a Stola, A Day in Ostia

Book 2: The Secrets of Vesuvius (theme: parentage and adoption)
SETTING - Ostia, Laurentum, Pompeii, Stabia (ITALY) 
August 79 AD
Roman topic: the eruption of Vesuvius and destruction of Pompeii and surrounding towns
Real historical characters: Pliny the Elder, Titus Tascius Pomponianus, Rectina
Sources: Pliny the Younger, Pliny the Elder, Catullus, Ostian graffiti
Greek myths: the return of Vulcan, Thetis, Achilles
Roman festivals: Vinalia, Vulcanalia
featured food: Pliny's simple fare: cheese, fruit, eggs; Tascius' rich fare: turbot in dill sauce
key artefacts and objects: scrolls, portable inkpot and pen, flute, pan-pipes, parasol, cushions, wooden false teeth
Related posts: Children in Pompeii and Herculaneum

Book 3: The Pirates of Pompeii (theme: slavery and freedom) Nubia's book
SETTING - Stabia, Vico Equense, Sorrento (ITALY) 
August/Sept 79 AD
Roman topic: Patrons and clients, slaves and freedmen
Real historical characters: The Emperor Titus, Pollius Felix (attested in a poem of Statius)
Historical site: the villa of Pollius Felix on the Cape of Sorrento, Scraio (spa town near Sorrento)
Sources: Pompeian graffiti, Statius's 'Silvae' (poems)
Greek myths: Dionysus and the pirates, Ariadne & Theseus
featured food: lemons (recently introduced); goat stew, flat bread, chickpeas, mineral water, sage tea
key artefacts and objects: earrings, hairpins, theatrical masks, lyre, flute, kylix (Greek drinking cup)
Related posts: Serendipity in Surrentum

Book 4: The Assassins of Rome (theme: guilt) 
Jonathan's book
SETTING - Ostia & Rome (ITALY) 
September 79 AD
Roman topic: Nero's golden house, the destruction of Jerusalem, Jewish slave labour, chariot races
Real historical characters: Emperor Titus, Berenice, Domitian, Josephus
Sources: Suetonius, Cassius Dio, Homer, Josephus, the Bible
Greek myths: Odysseus, Polyphemus the cyclops, Penelope the faithful wife
Jewish festivals: Rosh Hashannah, Yom Kippur, Succot
featured food: exotic oranges; buttermilk; honey dipped apples for Rosh Hashanna
key artefacts and objects: wax tablet and stylus, alabastron, loom and weights, bass lyre, tambourine

Book 5: The Dolphins of Laurentum (revenge and forgiveness) Lupus's book
SETTING - Ostia and Laurentum (ITALY) 
October 79 AD
Roman topic: a real maritime villa, sponge-diving on the Greek islands
Real historical characters: Pliny the Younger
Sources: Pliny the Younger's letter about his Laurentum villa (letter II.xvii)
Greek myths: Medusa, Arion and the dolphins, Neptune & Amphitrite
Roman festival: Meditrinalia
featured food: honey glazed prawns, chicken soup
key artefacts and objects: sponge-stick, sea-sponges, dolphin earrings, anchors, ball games

Book 6: The Twelve Tasks of Flavia Gemina (love and marriage) 
Flavia's book
SETTING - Ostia (ITALY) December 
79 AD
Roman topic: Love, betrothal and marriage in first century Rome
Historical site: notable buildings in and around Ostia
Sources: Ostian inscriptions, Ovid, Martial, Apollodorus
Greek myths: Twelve Tasks of Hercules, Pygmalion, Cerberus, Atalanta
Roman festival: Saturnalia
featured food: lentil stew, omelettes, plums, oysters, mushrooms, quail pie, boar, ostrich, love potion!
key artefacts and objects: sigilla (figurines), dice, objects in the household shrine, strigil and bath set

Book 7: The Enemies of Jupiter (theme: hubris) 
Jonathan's book
SETTING: Ostia and Rome (ITALY) 
February 80 AD
Roman topic: medicine and doctors in first century Rome
Real historical sites: Tiber Island, Palatine Hill, Capitoline Hill and the Temple of Jupiter
Sources: Suetonius, Cassius Dio, Galen, Pliny the Elder, Hippocrates
Greek myths: Prometheus and Pandora, Aesculapius, Niobe and her children
featured food: food for medicinal properties, light, medium & heavy foods, etc
key artefacts and objects: bleeding cup, votive parts of the body, medical instruments

Book 8: The Gladiators from Capua (theme: blood and sacrifice) Nubia's book
SETTING - Rome (ITALY) 
March 80 AD
Roman topic: gladiators, beast-fights and the opening of the Colosseum in spring of AD 80
Real historical sites: the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum), Domus Aurea, Mons Testaccio
Real historical figures: Titus, Domitian, Carpophorus the beast-fighter, Martial
Sources: Martial, Suetonius, Cassius Dio, Ovid, Statius, Seneca, Pliny
Greek myths: Orpheus, Ganymede, Prometheus, and more
Jewish festival: Passover
featured food: barley porridge for gladiators, snacks sold at games, etc.
key artefacts and objects: gladiatorial arms and armour, ancient souvenirs, raffle balls thrown to crowds

Book 9: The Colossus of Rhodes (theme: vows and promises) Lupus's book
SETTING - Ostia, Greek islands including Patmos, Symi & Rhodes (ITALY and GREECE) 
April 80 AD
Roman topics: the seven wonders of the world, ancient 'tourism'
Historical sites: Rhodes, Symi , Kalymnos
Sources: Pliny the Elder, Apollonius of Rhodes, Homer
Greek myths: Jason and the Argonauts by Apollonius of Rhodes
GREEKS #KS2 and #KS3 
Related posts: The Colossus of Rhodes, Ancient Gum, Hylas

Book 10: The Fugitive from Corinth (theme: jealousy) 
Nubia's book
SETTING - Corinth, Delphi, Athens (GREECE) 
May 80 CE
Roman topics: Greeks in the Roman world
Historical sites: Corinth, Delphi, Athens
Sources: Pausanias, Apollodorus, Herodotus, Aeschylus
Greek myths: Theseus's Athenian adventures, Eumenides

Book 11: The Sirens of Surrentum (theme: sex and decadence) Flavia's book
SETTING - Sorrento (ITALY) 
June 80 AD
Roman topics: Roman philosophy and the failed plot to kill Nero
Historical characters: Nero, Seneca, Lucan, Polla Argentaria, Flaccus
Sources: Seneca, Lucan, Suetonius, Tacitus, Statius, Propertius
Greek myths: Dido and Aeneas, Odysseus and the Sirens
ROMANS #KS3 
Related posts: Villa LimonaPoison in the Garden 

Book 12: The Charioteer of Delphi (theme: faithfulness) 
Nubia's book
SETTING - Ostia & Rome (ITALY) 
September 80 AD
Roman topics: chariot races and factions
Historical site: the Circus Maximus
Historical characters: real charioteers like Scopas, Hierax and Crescens
Sources: Ovid, Juvenal, Martial
Greek myths: Pelops and Oenomaus
Roman festivals: Ludi Romani
ROMANS #KS2 and #KS3
Related posts: Fun Chariot Facts, Names of Roman Horses

Book 13: The Slave-girl from Jerusalem (theme: death and birth) Jonathan's book
SETTING - Ostia (ITALY) 
December 80 AD
Roman topics: childbirth, funerals, wills, Roman law courts, gestures of a rhetor
Historical backstory: destruction of Jerusalem and siege of Masada
Sources: Josephus, Quintilian, Cicero, Juvenal, Seneca, Roman legal documents
Greek myths: Cassandra and the Sack of Troy
featured food: pea and leek soup, mastic chewing resin, sage tea, chestnut flour
key artefacts and objects: birthing chair, funeral pyre, bier, tombs, seal-box for wills
ROMANS #KS2 and #KS3 
Related posts: Roman Law Courts

Book 14: The Beggar of Volubilis (theme: piety) 
Flavia's book
SETTING - Ostia, Sabratha (LIBYA), Volubilis (MOROCCO) 
March 81 AD
Roman topics: Roman theatre, Cleopatra's descendants, sightings of Nero
Historical sites: Sabratha, Tripolis, Volubilis, Ghadames
Sources: Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch
Greek myths: Diana and Actaeon
featured food: millet porridge, roast locusts, lizard meat, camel-milk pancakes, senna tea, cola nuts
key artefacts and objects: bow, arrows, quiver, betrothal ring, bath-set, Nero's emerald, lens
Egypt #KS2 and #KS3 
Related posts: Ugly Cleopatra, Volubilis

Book 15: The Scribes from Alexandria (theme: going home) Nubia's book
SETTING - Alexandria, stops along the Nile to Nubia (EGYPT)
May 81 AD
Roman topics: Roman Egypt especially Alexandria, eunuchs, the Great Library, the Nile
Historical sites: Canopus, Alexandria, Giza, Edfu, Aswan, Nubia
Sources: Strabo, Martial, Juvenal
Egyptian myths and legends, including story of Isis, Osiris and Seth
featured food: sun-bread, bean porridge, palm wine, onions, leaf-cups, dom-fruit
key artefacts and objects: hieroglyphs, graffiti, riddles, codes, treasure map
Egypt #KS2 and #KS3 
Related posts: The Seth Animal, Upside Down Egypt

Book 16: The Prophet from Ephesus (theme: redemption) Jonathan's book
SETTING - Halicarnassus, Heracleia, Ephesus (TURKEY) 
August 81 AD
Roman topics: early church in Asia Minor
Historical sites: Halicarnassus, Ephesus, Hierapolis, Laodicea
Historical characters: St John the Apostle, Tychichus
Sources: Strabo, the New Testament
Greek myths: Pluto and Persephone, Endymion and Selene
featured food: grapes from the vine, cucumber, sour cherry juice, sheep entrail kebabs, pomegranates
key artefacts and objects: dolls, travel baskets, reed flute, lyre, carpets, looms

Book 17: The Man from Pomegranate Street (theme: resolution) Flavia's book
SETTING - Ostia, Rome, Sabina, Castelgandolfo (ITALY) 
Sept 81 AD
Roman topics: mysterious death of Titus in September AD 81
Historical sites: Rome, the Sabine Hills, Palace of Domitian and the Emissario on Lake Albanus
Historical characters: Titus, Domitian, Ascletario, Gaius Valerius Flaccus, Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus
Sources: Suetonius, Babylonian Talmud, Apollonius of Tyana
Greek myths: Romulus and Remus, Rape of the Sabine Women, Death of Odysseus
featured food: Sabine olive oil, brown bread, honey, grapes, imported oysters
key artefacts and objects: needle-sharp stylus, graffiti, wedding veil and the spear to part the bride's hair

[The 17 books in The Roman Mysteries are perfect for children aged 9+, especially those studying Romans as a topic in Key Stage 2. Carrying on from the Roman Mysteries, the Roman Quests is a four-book series set in Roman Britain. You can watch The Roman Mysteries on Amazon Prime.]



Thursday, June 27, 2019

ADORN: Protective Roman Jewellery

Many people who lived in ancient times believed that when you looked at something your eyes would emit little particles of fire, (a bit like Superman with his laser vision.) That meant that an angry, jealous or envious person could actually hurt the person they were looking at. The anger or envy in their heart, transmitted by the beams, could make someone sick and even cause their death. This was called the ‘evil eye’ and children were considered particularly vulnerable. People also believed in a world full of gods, demigods and spirits, not all of them friendly. For this reason, people often wore magic amulets to avert the evil eye or distract demons. Borders, patches and knots in clothing often served this purpose. but it is most clearly seen in jewellery. 

At a new exhibition of jewellery dating from the Bronze Age to the 21st century, I was lucky enough to get a sneak peek at some of the objects and spotted five different types of protective Roman jewellery. 


MEDUSA MEDALLION
The first object I spotted is this marvellous little medallion showing the gorgon Medusa. Any face shown looking back will reflect back the ‘evil eye’ but Medusa is doubly powerful, her gaze can turn you to stone! In addition, the amulet is made of jet which was considered a special substance in Roman times because it warms quickly in your hand and if you rub it, then it can move things like dust and hair, seemingly by magic (but really by static electricity.) Jet was very popular with women, so I imagine the British wife of a retired Roman soldier wearing this around her neck for protection. If you look carefully you will see this Medusa also has snakes at her throat as well as in her hair, probably because demons and evil spirits dislike snakes. 


SERPENT BANGLES
Speaking of snakes, these charming little bracelets are stylised serpents. They are made of copper-alloy and come from the later Roman period in Colchester. I think they are a bit sad because they are quite small and may have been worn by a little girl after she died. Perhaps she wore them when she was alive to scare away evil spirits. Snakes were associated with death and rebirth in the Roman world and so these might also protect her in the afterlife. We have found other serpent bracelets from the Roman world. Girls and women seemed to like snakes more than men, but that may just be because men didn’t wear bracelets. 


BULLA EARRINGS
In Roman times baby boys were often given a gold bulla (the word means ‘ball’) to hang around their neck. This was a protective amulet and when the boy reached manhood he would offer it to a god in thanks for protecting him. I have never seen a girl wearing a bulla medallion, but these earrings would have provided twice the protection of a single bulla. They are exactly the same style as some found in Pompeii and might have come all the way from Italy. 


MOON BRACELET
If boys often wore amulets that resembled the sun (gold balls), girls often wore amulets in silver that looked like a crescent moon. The goddess of the moon was Diana and the moon is often associated with females. The lunate or moon-shaped pendant can be seen on many of the so-called Fayum portraits, paintings of Romans living in Egypt in the 1st and 3rd centuries AD. The protective qualities of the silver moon on this bracelet are enhanced by the beads which are made of jet, amber and glass, all ‘magical’ substances. See the coin with the hole? That was another good-luck token. This was literally a ‘charm’ bracelet in that it has protective properties. 


SATYR GEMSTONES
You might have trouble finding these gemstones in the exhibition because they are TEENY tiny, about the size of your little fingernail! They are called intaglios which means they have something engraved into them. These stones would probably have been put in a ring and then used as the owner’s seal or signet. In Roman times a person’s ring was their ‘signature’! In the case of both these semi-precious blue-black gemstones we think the figures are satyrs. Satyrs were mythical creatures – half goat and half man – sacred to the god of wine, Dionysus. Also known as Bacchus, Dionysus was another god who could protect you, and after death he often led worthy souls down to the underworld. So, like all the other objects in my list they served an additional protective function in addition to their decorative use.

The exhibition is called ADORN but they could also have called it ADORN & PROTECT! It is on from 27 July 2019 until 16 February 2020 at Colchester Museums. The show is included in the price of entry to the Castle. For more information, go HERE.

Thanks to curators Glynn Davis and Pippa Pickles for showing me around! The superb photos were taken by Douglas Atfield and are all copyright Colchester Museums. I have used them with permission.


Saturday, March 09, 2019

Time Travel Diaries

In 2003, London builders were digging foundations for a new block of flats about half a mile south of the Tate Modern when they came across human bones in what appeared to be an ancient graveyard. Archaeologists were called in. They realised the bodies were from Roman times. Some of the dead had been buried in wooden coffins, others on a bed of white chalk dust, and some had both: a layer of chalk at the bottom of a coffin. 

One skeleton, that of a girl, had some expensive grave goods. There were two small glass perfume bottles either side of her head. There were the remains of a small wooden casket decorated with bone and bronze at her feet. Also, at her left hip were a small key and a clasp knife. 


The knife was unique. An iron blade folded into a handle of ivory, carved in the shape of a leopard devouring its prey. 



Ivory was an exotic and expensive material, suggesting that the girl may have been wealthy. 

However, her bones show signs of possible malnourishment, suggesting she was poor. 


The skeleton also told archaeologists that the girl died aged about 14. 


Because her remains and grave goods were so interesting, samples of her teeth and bones were sent to be analysed. 


From the teeth we got a DNA sample, which showed that she had blue eyes and that her mother was from Northern Europe. But stable isotopes in her ribs tell us that she grew up in the southern mediterranean, possibly even North Africa. They also tell us that from the time she was nine she started eating a London diet. This meant she made the long trip from North Africa (possibly) to Britannia (definitely) aged only nine years old.


We also know that she was tall for her age, she had bandy legs that were getting better and she had very bad teeth with several large cavities. 


There is no tomb or other identifying marker with her, so we don’t know her name or why she ended up in Londinium (Roman London). 




As soon as I read about her, I longed to go back in time to Roman London to meet the blue-eyed girl with the ivory knife and find out her real story. But of course Time Travel hasn't been invented yet – and probably never will be – so there was no way to know. 

One of the differences between an archaeologist and an author is that an archaeologist has to stick to the facts, but an author can use his or her imagination to create a story. 


So I did just that. With the help of bioarchaeologist Dr Rebecca Redfern and other clever people at the Museum of London, I gathered as many facts as I could about her. Then I used my imagination to make up a possible scenario that would explain why a blue-eyed girl from North Africa would come to Londinium in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD, and why sh
e would have those particular objects in her grave. 



To link the story to modern times, I had a 12-year-old London schoolboy travel back to find her. That way I could describe Roman London in terms that a modern kid would understand. Also, having a modern boy go back in time to find a girl from the past adds risk and humour. And maybe even romance. 



I used as many real settings from Roman London as I could: the amphitheatre, a bathhouse, the massive basilica and – best of all – London's newly re-opened Temple to Mithras. This temple is in almost exactly the same place it would have been in the third century so it is the perfect place for a portable time portal. 


You could take the same facts about the Lant Street Teenager and make up a completely different story. In fact there are thousands of possible stories that could be told about her. 




Why don't you have a go? Write a story about how and why a blue eyed girl with an ivory knife travelled thousands of miles by ship to arrive at Londinium in the late third century. 

Then read my book and see how our ideas compare. 




The Time Travel Diaries will be published on 4 April 2019. On the day before, 3 April 2019, I will be doing a FREE live stream from the Museum of London, where her bones reside and where school groups can come to do a free workshop called Written In Bone.  

I will also be doing a FREE school event at the Hay Literary Festival on 23 May 2019. Book your place here


P.S. All the lovely black and white illustrations from the book are by the brilliant Sara Mulvanny and they are her copyright, too!